What is IP Rating?

UNITS TO MEASURE DURABILITY

OF ELECTRONIC GADGETS


Firstly, there are two units to measure the durability of modern electronic devices.
1. NEMA (national electronic manufacturers association) which is mostly used in USA.
2.IP (international protection rating or ingresses progress rating) which used to be used in Europe but is
presently used all over the world. since, IP rating has a much wider application, let us first talk about it.

IP rating is is expressed as:
IP indication
First digit: Solid particle protection
Second digit: Liquid ingress protection
Third digit: Mechanical impact resistance
Additional letter: Other protections
IP
Single numeral: 0–6 or "X"
Single numeral: 0–9 or "X"
Single numeral: 0–9
Single letter
Mandatory
Mandatory
Mandatory
No longer used
Optional
IP:INGRESS PROGRESS
(FIRST DIGIT 0-6 OR X)
(SECOND DIGIT 0-9 OR X)
(ADDITIONAL LETTER WHICH CAN BE: A,B,C,D)
(LAST LETTER: WHICH CAN BE H,M,S,W).

Letter
Meaning
C
Protection against access with a tool
D
Wire
f
Oil resistant
H
High voltage device
M
Device moving during water test
S
Device standing still during water test
W
Weather conditions

Here x means there is no data available to provide info.Only these letters are used.


*The first digit (0-6) signifies how dust resistance the devices is.

Level sized
Effective against
Description
X
X means there is no data available to specify a protection rating with regard to this criterion.
0
No protection against contact and ingress of objects
1
>50 mm
Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part
2
>12.5 mm
Fingers or similar objects
3
>2.5 mm
Tools, thick wires, etc.
4
>1 mm
Most wires, slender screws, large ants etc.
5
Dust protected
Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment.
6
Dust tight
No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact (dust tight). A vacuum must be applied. Test duration of up to 8 hours based on air flow.


Most of the modern gadgets(flagship phones) have IP6... Dust resistant.

example: iPhone and Samsung Galaxy flagship phones ...etc have.
Here, if the first digit is x: i.e IPx.... it means info regarding dust resistance is insufficient.


*The second digit (0-9) signifies resistance to water.

Level
Protection against
Effective against
Details
X
X means there is no data available to specify a protection rating with regard to this criteria.
0
None
1
Dripping water
Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect on the specimen when mounted in an upright position onto a turntable and rotated at 1 RPM.
Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 1 mm rainfall per minute
2
Dripping water when tilted at 15°
Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle of 15° from its normal position. A total of four positions are tested within two axes.
Test duration: 2.5 minutes for every direction of tilt (10 minutes total)
Water equivalent to 3 mm rainfall per minute
3
Spraying water
Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with a counterbalanced shield.
Test a) is conducted for 5 minutes, then repeated with the specimen rotated horizontally by 90° for the second 5-minute test. Test b) is conducted (with shield in place) for 5 minutes minimum.
For a spray nozzle:
Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 5 minutes[4]
Water volume: 10 litres per minute
Pressure: 50–150 kPa
For an oscillating tube:
Test duration: 10 minutes
Water volume: 0.07 l/min per hole
4
Splashing of water
Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect, utilizing either: a) an oscillating fixture, or b) A spray nozzle with no shield.
Test a) is conducted for 10 minutes. Test b) is conducted (without shield) for 5 minutes minimum.
Oscillating tube: Test duration: 10 minutes, or spray nozzle (same as IPX3 spray nozzle with the shield removed)
5
Water jets
Water projected by a nozzle (6.3 mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.
Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute
Pressure: 30 kPa at distance of 3 m
6
Powerful water jets
Water projected in powerful jets (12.5 mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.
Test duration: 1 minute per square meter for at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 100 litres per minute
Pressure: 100 kPa at distance of 3 m
6K
Powerful water jets with increased pressure
Water projected in powerful jets (6.3 mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction, under elevated pressure, shall have no harmful effects. Found in DIN 40050, and not IEC 60529.
Test duration: at least 3 minutes[citation needed]
Water volume: 75 litres per minute
Pressure: 1000 kPa (10 bar) at distance of 3 m
7
Immersion, up to 1 m depth
Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).
Test duration: 30 minutes.[5]
Tested with the lowest point of the enclosure 1000 mm below the surface of the water, or the highest point 150 mm below the surface, whichever is deeper.
8
Immersion, 1 m or more depth
The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects. The test depth and duration is expected to be greater than the requirements for IPx7, and other environmental effects may be added, such as temperature cycling before immersion.
Test duration: agreement with manufacturer
Depth specified by manufacturer, generally up to 3 m
Powerful high temperature water jets
Protected against close-range high pressure, high temperature spray downs.
Smaller specimens rotate slowly on a turntable, from 4 specific angles. Larger specimens are mounted in the intended position when being used, no turntable required, and are tested freehand for at least 3 minutes at distance of 0.15–0.2 m.
The specific requirements for the test nozzle is shown in figures 7, 8, & 9 of IEC (or EN) 60529.
This test is identified as IPx9 in IEC 60529.
Test duration: Fixture: 30 sec. in each of 4 angles (2 min. total), Freehand: 1 min/m2, 3 min. minimum
Water volume: 14–16 litres per minute
Pressure: 8–10 MPa (80–100 bar) at distance of 0.10–0.15 m
Water temperature: 80 °C


The most commonly used IP rating are listed below.IP 67 ,IP 68, IP 69 k and IPx5 .

Example: Apple watch series 4 and 5 have IPX rating. NEMA and IP rating cannot be compared because both the systems use different conditions. However some similar IP and NEMA ratings are listed below.


STAY TUNED FOR MORE UPDATES.

NEMA enclosure[8]
IP Code
1
IP20
2
IP22
3, 3X, 3S, 3SX
IP55
3R, 3RX
IP24
4, 4X
P66IP65
5
IP53
6
IP67
6P
IP68
12, 12K
IP52
13
IP54


PEACE!

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